Saturday, December 12, 2015

From Miriam to Mary to Modern Day: God's Role for Women in Ministry

This year I have faced many people with opinions that God does not want women in ministry. The idea that God did not want me on the path I was headed greatly troubled me. I started to look for people who supported it and found that many of my favorite people did, so I would be momentarily content to continuing believing what I had. I could not imagine that my best friend did not want me to go out into the world to preach His great name. I became puzzled and wanted to dig more into the idea of women in ministry. However, there are these things called work and school that consume much of my time year round. Then came along my good friend, Critical Thinking and Writing (whoever thought such a statement would ever be uttered). This class gave me the opportunity to dig into a controversial topic in my field for 2 months. Guess where I headed right away: the library's section on women in ministry. And so without further ado, this is my paper I wrote for Critical Thinking and Writing class. It was a great privilege to be able to spend time researching the arguments for and against women in ministry since this issue is one near and dear to my heart. I hope women who have desires to go into ministry are encouraged by this, like I was. I hope men who read this and already support women in ministry are inspired to support women with dreams of being in ministry even more. And I hope that those who do not hold my view allow their hearts to be changed by what God's word says both directly and indirectly about women in ministry. I know this paper is long, but that is only because the argument for women in ministry is so strong.

From Miriam to Mary to Modern Day: God’s Role for Women in Ministry
            According to Dr. Jaco Hamman (2010), the number of women going to seminary and stepping into pastoral positions is increasing, but there is still a lot of bias against women. Hamman recalled story after story of gifted and highly educated women who struggled to be accepted into the pastoral community after graduation (pp. 769-770). Even those who are officially accepted into the pastoral community face a lot of judgement afterwards. Dr. Kimberly Alexander (2012) suggested in Theology Today, “male ministers who have charisma, are decisive and outgoing are called ‘anointed leaders’; women with the same traits and gifts are rebuked for having a ‘Jezebel spirit’” (p. 405). Theologian Riet Bons-Storm also argued this point by saying when women do take control they are described to be feminists or rebels (as cited by Hamman, 2010, p. 776). Therefore, even when women are accepted, they are seen in very different ways by the church.
The Barna Group (2012) also noted this partial acceptance of women and other pieces of information surrounding women and the church. According to their research, 20% of women in the church feel under-utilized, and roughly the same percentage of women think their opportunities are limited by their gender. One-fifth of women surveyed said they strongly believed male leaders in their churches were not willing to make changes to allow for more women to have leadership roles, and one quarter did not think their churches approved of women as pastors (para. 3, 8). Women are feeling judged, and in many churches they are being held back. This judgment, however, is not new to women. As pastor Matt Anderson (2014) astutely noted, “no group of people has been more consistently devalued and marginalized than women” (para. 3).
This heartbreaking observation does not always have to ring true, and the solution can begin with churches allowing women to live out their God-given ministry aspirations however they are called. Women should be accepted as pastoral leaders in the church because keeping women from prominent ministry positions denies their equal value, women have many gifts which are beneficial for pastoral leaders to possess, God’s use of women in the Bible shows it is biblical, and the Scripture commonly used against women in pastoral leadership is often wrongly interpreted.
When one agrees with the idea women and men are equal, it is difficult to argue against the idea women and men should have the same opportunities to serve within a church. Early on in Genesis, the Bible supported the idea men and women are equal. L.E. Maxwell (1987) recalled where in the Bible it said “God created man in His own image…male and female He created them”, it was clear “man” was used in the generic or universal sense (p. 31). This means both men and women were created in the image of God. Not only were both created in the image of God, but both were given dominion over the creatures of the earth. In Genesis 1:26, 28 it said let them have dominion. It did not merely say let men have dominion, but them making the meaning much different. When speaking about those verses, Gilbert Bilezikian (1989) noted God was very careful to list every creature men and women have dominion over, and even said they had dominion over the creatures that crawl on the ground, but He never established any kind of hierarchy between men and women (pp. 19-21) meaning no hierarchy of importance was ever meant to be established.
In Genesis 2:18 it said man should not be alone, and so God promised to send a helper, the woman. When looking at the creation story, it is interesting to note as Bilezikian did, that in Genesis 2:18 the true definition of “helper” is different than what one could expect. Many think of the term “helper” as meaning servant or otherwise a lower position and so “helper” may be seen as a degrading term today. However, it was never meant that way because the very same word was also used to describe God rescuing His people in other texts (p. 22). Another interesting thing about the creation story is how Eve was created. Henry suggested since the woman did not come from the man’s head she is not to trample on him, but also since she did not come from his feet she should not be trampled upon. The woman came from his side symbolizing the equality of men and women (as cited by Maxwell, 1987, p. 33).
It is also remarkable to notice, as Maxwell (1987) did, that throughout the Old Testament Israelite women have been more highly regarded than the women of every other culture. He noted men and women were called to make decisions together, and the fifth commandment does not just instruct people to honor their fathers but also their mothers (p. 18). Pitman drew attention to the fact that Christ came as a man born of a woman. He argued the sexes were made more equal through this because womanhood and motherhood were seen as more valuable due to the miraculous way Christ came into the world (as cited by Maxwell, 1987, p. 16). Maxwell mentioned how Galatians 3:28 is often thought to be a very liberating verse for women because it said Christ has broken down all barriers and divisions previously set up (pp. 73-75) because that verse said, “there is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus” (NIV). Here, Christ was tearing down all the human-made barriers and stating that in spite of what people have come to believe everyone is one in him.
Throughout the Bible, it is demonstrated men and women were always intended to be equals, and it is still widely believed in the church men and women were created equal. However, many still do not let women enter into various positions in the church. The positions women are often banned from are ones of pastoral leadership. How does this portray the idea men and women are equal if men are allowed to hold any position in the church but women are barred from the most influential ones? If the sexes are equal, then both men and women should be able to hold the same positions in the church.
Another one of many reasons women should be allowed to take on the roles of pastoral leadership is women tend to have many gifts which would be extremely beneficial for pastoral leaders to possess. While not all men have the same gifts and not all women have the same gifts, some basic conclusions can be made about the general gifts and qualities people have. This will be addressed later.
First, it must be clarified some women do indeed have the spiritual gifts of teaching, pastoring, and leadership. Many assume women do not possess these gifts, but there is absolutely no evidence women cannot possess such gifts. In fact, the opposite is true. Mark Husbands and Timothy Larsen (2007) mentioned the lists of spiritual gifts in the New Testament are completely gender neutral (p. 116), and people have different gifts depending on what the Spirit gives them (p. 121). The Bible did not give its readers a list of masculine gifts and a list of feminine gifts, and that is for a reason. Encouragement and hospitality are not strictly feminine gifts, and leadership and teaching are not strictly masculine gifts. Many men are gifted with encouragement and hospitality, and many women who are gifted with the ability to teach and lead well.  Numerous examples exist throughout time of women incredibly gifted in these areas. Hamman (2010) recalled how during the past several years in the seminary he works at many academic awards and most performance awards related to leadership and preaching were awarded to women (p. 769).
            It is not that men do not at all hold gifts for leadership, teaching, administration, or have other qualities or gifts which are important for pastoral leadership. They certainly do, but there are also women who are equally gifted in these areas. Not only are many women highly gifted in the areas men would traditionally hold in the church, but there are other gifts women possess which would be extremely beneficial for our church leaders to have. Research from High Abilities Studies reported (2011) women tend to be more naturally inclined towards emotionality and sensuality (Wirthwein, L., Becker, C. V., Loehr, E., & Rost, D. H., p. 146). Pierson also said men tend not be highly gifted in the areas of heart qualities, moral intuition, affectional depth, empathy, sacrifice, and ability to suffer (as noted by Maxwell, 1987, p. 35). Being in ministry requires a leader to be empathetic. According to both Pierson’s and High Abilities Studies’ findings, women would be more naturally able in this area. Husbands and Larsen (2007) said women tend to be less aggressive, which could make for a more loving work and ministry environment. They also agreed women are more fluent verbally, which could make for greater communication among workers, more clarity in the vision of the church, and more understandable sermons (pp. 198-199). Browne’s (2002) findings affirm these thoughts (p. 13). The authors of A Fearful Symmetry? also pointed out the focuses of men and women are often quite different. They said women tend to focus more on relationships while men focus more on work. It also said men seem to gain their sense of self-worth from personal achievement in the public eye while women tend to enter into positions that center around people and deal with caring (Allchin, A. M., & Taylor, J. V., 1992, p. 15). Browne (2002) wrote that women have been found to have a higher work ethic as well (p. 82). How could ministry look different with women? It could mean ministry may become more relationally focused with leaders whose focuses are not on work (yet still work hard) but on relationships themselves. It could also mean ministry leaders are more humble and less focused on personal achievement. Many ministries and pastoral leaders do have these qualities but with more women present these ministries could excel in these areas even more.
            These sources show women do indeed have gifts of leadership, pastoring, and teaching as well as other gifts that come naturally to them which would be amazing for pastoral leaders to have so women should not be held back from exercising these gifts. As Edward and James Hastings once said, “if in our age God has given women who both can evangelize the world and teach the Church, it is not for the Church to reject this gift of the ascended Christ, but to use it with thankfulness and wisdom inspired by His spirit” (as quoted by Maxwell, 1987, p. 16). When women are welcomed to be in pastoral leadership alongside men, the faith community receives the necessary gifts men have and also the vital gifts women have.
            Not only does it make logical sense gifted women should be able to exercise their gifts, but God’s consistent use of women in leadership positions throughout the Bible shows it also makes biblical sense. This is a third reason women should be welcomed to leadership positions in the church. When looking back at the Old Testament, one could easily overlook Miriam, but she is not one to be forgotten. Maxwell (1987) was one of the few who did not forget her. He noted that she was a part of the deliverance of Israel and even Micah mentioned her part in it (p. 22). While Miriam’s contribution was impressive, she was not the only woman in the Old Testament who did great things for God. Deborah was also a Godly leader. Keener (n.d.) wrote that Deborah held the highest position in Israel in her day, that of a judge. It is also interesting to note there was nothing negative written about her like there is against most other judges (para. 5). Maxwell also drew attention to Deborah’s good leadership by noting Barak shows his dependence upon her in Judges 4:8 (p. 23). Just like Deborah, Huldah was also chosen by God to be a prophetess in a time when there were many men available to do the job, demonstrating God does not just choose women when there are not men to fill a position (p. 27). Theologian Scot McKnight (2011) mentioned how Josiah passed over Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Nahum, and Jeremiah to have Huldah do the work he needed to be done (p. 12). Huldah was a prophetess who helped start Israel’s greatest revival ever (p. 1). Women were not just eating fruit off of forbidden trees in the Old Testament. They were also being chosen by God to do great things for His glory.
            The New Testament continues to shower favor upon women in ministry. Carroll (1975) pointed out Jesus allowed women the honor of learning from him, which traditionally would never be a privilege a woman could have had (p. 663). Ben Witherington (1984) pointed out Jesus was not afraid to teach Mary in private despite the risk of scandal (pp. 114-115). Maxwell (1987) highlighted how well Jesus treated women in his ministry. He treated the Samaritan woman at the well and Mary of Bethany with much more respect than they would generally receive (pp. 50-52). Not only did Jesus associate with women, but he also used them in his teaching. Belleville (2000) noted women were frequently in Jesus’ teachings, and he often used them as positive examples, such as when he spoke of the widow’s great sacrifice and lifted up the woman who anointed him (p. 48). Evans (1983) also drew attention to Jesus’ teachings involving women. She said when Jesus used women in parables they often illustrated themes of persistence in prayer, mercy, joy of God over the salvation of others, and care (p. 48). It is also interesting how women treated Jesus. When Jesus was on the cross, there were many female followers present as mentioned in Mark 15:40-41. An anonymous poet even wrote this poem: “Not she with traitorous lips her Savior stung; not she denied Him with unholy tongue; she, whilst apostles shrunk, could danger brave; last at the cross, and earliest at the grave” (quoted by Maxwell, 1987, p. 56). As it is stated in the poem, the women who were at the cross when Jesus died were also the first at his grave. Carroll (1975) mentioned women were chosen to be the witnesses of Jesus’ resurrection (p. 665). They were commanded by the angel to tell everyone about it in Mark 16:7, which made them to be the first evangelists. If God meant for women to be silent in the church, He would not have had the angel tell the women to spread the news of Jesus’ resurrection.
Many complementarians point out, as Saucy and Tenelshof (2001) did, that Jesus only chose men as disciples (pp. 105-106). While this is true, it is still important to note how Jesus treated women and also important to remember the different leadership roles women held in the New Testament in the building of the church.
            The roles of women in ministry did not end when Jesus ascended into heaven. If one looks carefully, one will see how influential women were in the building of the early church and how important their roles were. For example in Paul’s letter to the Romans, he noted many women at the end of his letter. Payne (2015) affirmed seven of the 10 people mentioned in his list of co-laborers were indeed women and said “Paul’s naming such a high proportion of women leaders in an open society is unparalleled in the entire history of ancient Greek literature and suggests a level of female leadership in the early church exceptional for its culture” (p. 5). One of the women Paul mentioned was Junia. McKnight (2011) talked about how Paul wrote that Junia was highly esteemed by the apostles and thought to be an actual apostle herself (pp. 8-9). In all early translations of the Bible into other languages, Junia was assumed to be a woman. In fact, in English translations from Tyndale’s translation to the late 1800s Junia was thought to be a woman (p. 16). Of course, proving she was a woman does not solely prove her apostleship, but there are many things about the passage that suggest such. Belleville (2000) noted Paul mentioned Junia went to prison as well so this suggests their roles were quite similar (p. 55). If Junia were truly an apostle, as it is suspected, this greatly affects the argument about women in pastoral leadership. Another woman of faith was Lydia, a woman who led the people of Philippi and did not go unnoticed by Maxwell (1987, p. 63). He also mentioned how Paul said Euodia and Syntyche both shared in his struggle for the Gospel and said they were of the same mind as the Lord (p. 64). As Thomas declared, “not only is there no hint of any restriction on women, but on the contrary, it shows the Philippian church to be one in which women played a prominent part” (as cited by Evans, 1983, p. 128). Maxwell (1987) also talked about Philip’s four daughters who were prophetesses, which meant they were also teachers and preached the Gospel to both men and women (pp. 65-66). Dr. Spencer (1985) noted how Phoebe, Euodia, Syntyche, Prisca, and perhaps also Stephana, Lydia, Apphia, Nymphia, Tryphosa, Tryphaena, and Chloe were church overseers (p. 109). When one truly studies the Bible, it is easy to see that women were very involved in the early church.
Women held nearly every pastoral leadership position in the early church, with the exception of priestess. Payne said it is important to note one of the reasons women may not have been chosen by God to priestesses is in that time priestesses were associated with prostitutes in heathen cults, and God would never want His people to appear to be involved in anything as unwholesome as that (p. 4). Therefore, the argument against women never being priestesses has a sensible rebuttal and the fact remains women did indeed hold every other office showing God did not make women to only hold a select few positions.
            However, there are certainly passages in the Bible that seem to very clearly speak against women in ministry. Perhaps the most famous is 1 Timothy 2:8-15. Here, it said women should learn in quietness and submission. Paul also said he was not allowing women to teach or have authority over a man. It is also seemed to argue in the passage that the woman sinned first and therefore, she was the one who became the sinner. The words in those verses seem to make things completely clear. Walker (2011) noted this passage seems clear enough for complementarians, who are people who hold the view that God made men and women for different roles and do not support women ministering to the general congregation (p. 21), to make these verses their “controlling paradigm” (p. 79). Verses like that can seem like difficult verses for egalitarians, who hold the view men and women do not have set roles in the church or family life (p. 22), but one must keep digging deeper to find the true meaning and context of this passage and others that seem to clearly preach against women in ministry because the Scripture commonly used against women in pastoral leadership is often wrongly interpreted.
Payne (2015) started breaking down the 1 Timothy passage right away. He argued the entire context of 1 Timothy is there was a lot of false teaching occurring in Ephesus at the time. It is also important to note at this point in history women were woefully uneducated so when women spoke up they were unknowingly spitting out lies they had been fed by the false teachers. That is why Paul called for the women to be silent and not try to teach the men. Paul restricted the women specifically because they were the ones being deceived (p. 6). Keener (n.d.) said Paul’s point in the passage about Eve was meant as a way to parallel how Eve sinned because she was deceived just like the women of Ephesus were (para. 28).
Payne (2015) also covered 1 Timothy chapter 3. It is widely said that because this section only talks about the requirements of men in leadership, women were never meant for it. However, 1 Timothy 3:1 says “anyone who aspires to be an overseer desire a noble task.” Payne mentioned how in the Greek language the word used for ‘anyone’ is not strictly masculine. It is a gender-inclusive word so both men and women have the opportunity to be overseers (p. 7).
Another common “problem passage” is in 1 Corinthians 14. In these verses, it said women were to be silent in the church. Bilezikian (1985) argued the idea that 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 was supposed to be Paul quoting someone else, and then the following verses were meant to rebuke that idea. This is supported by the fact there is a sudden turn at that point in the text (pp. 115-116), it does not align with Paul’s actions towards women, and the audience would likely have been Jewish and therefore have those beliefs. Maxwell (1987) also pointed out that it would seem quite contradictory for Paul to say women should be silent, when in the same letter he talked about how he allowed women to pray and prophesy (p. 17). With all the times Paul openly supported women taking leadership in churches, it would not make sense for Paul to call for women to be silent in the church. Maxwell (1987) gave another suggestion for the meaning of this passage. He suggested perhaps women had been speaking up in the middle of services and it was causing confusion. That idea may seem unlikely, but there are records of people interrupting services and uproars occurring in Acts so it could have been an issue in those churches in Corinth (pp. 88-89).
Another passage often brought up that has to do with women in the church is 1 Corinthians 11:2-16. There it said women should have their heads covered. Keener’s (n.d.) response to the issue was that “although Paul often advocated the mutuality of gender roles, he also worked within the boundaries of his culture where necessary for the sake of the gospel…. When Paul urged women in the Corinthian churches to cover their heads (the only place where the Bible teaches about this), he followed a custom prominent in many Eastern cultures of his day. Although women and men alike covered their heads for various reasons, married women specifically covered their heads to prevent men other than their husbands from lusting after their hair. A married woman who went out with her head uncovered was considered promiscuous and was to be divorced as an adulteress. Because of what head coverings symbolized in that culture, Paul asked the more liberated women to cover their heads so they would not scandalize the others” (para. 16 & 17). This verse does not condemn women at all and was not meant to shame them, but it was only important because it was culturally important at the time of Paul’s writing.
            Another verse that comes up in the discussion of women in ministry is Genesis 3:16, which said what consequences men and women would each have due to the fall of humanity. Maxwell (1987) addressed this verse and talked about how although its words seem to condemn women, the verse actually shows that both men and women were responsible for the fall of humanity and will experience consequences. He suggested the verse was not prescriptive, but descriptive when it said women will be ruled by their husbands (pp. 36-41).
            Maxwell (1987) also brought up 1 Corinthians 11’s discussion of headship. Most interpret this to mean men should rule and have power over women. However, Maxwell said headship was never meant to spark a discussion of superiority versus inferiority, only order. This is supported by 1 Corinthians 11:3 because there it said the head of Christ is God. It does not mean there Christ and God were not equal, only that Christ was subject to God (pp. 82-83). Therefore, even the argument of headship does not stand as one against women in pastoral leadership when truly looked at. In fact, when all the common “problem passages” are really and truly examined, they actually strengthen the argument for women in ministry.
            In the course of history, many women have proven themselves to be Godly leaders and teachers. Maxwell (1987) dedicated three long chapters to list over 20 women who have been great teachers and leaders in his book. Three among them are Catherine Booth, Jessie Penn-Lewis, and Anne Hasseltine Judson. Booth was the co-founder of the Salvation Army with her husband and in fact widely accepted as the reason the Salvation Army was started. Lewis has been called one of the most gifted speakers the world has known. Judson was a pioneer of the female missionary effort (pp. 106-107, 109, 120). Imagine how many people would have not been saved if it were not for Judson and the other female missionaries she inspired. Imagine the world without the Salvation Army and other organizations like it. Imagine the world without great speakers like Lewis who call people to live Christ-like lives. What has the world missed out on? Anderson (2014) wondered the same and said “for thousands of years, who knows what beautiful gifts the church has missed out on because it has shut out over half of the world’s population from having roles of significant leadership” (para. 9). The world has enjoyed so many wonderful things because women stepped up and led, but there are still unfortunately thousands of others who did not get the opportunity to step up and lead who could have made a huge difference in the world.
            One reason the world has missed out on the influence of women is women are not encouraged enough to make an impact. Alexander (2012) argued women desperately need encouragement from the Church (p. 410). She says rather than encouragement, women instead are often told they will be hard to place and many women are encouraged to pursue less prominent, “safer” ministry areas like counseling or youth ministry (p. 405). She suggested instead of pushing them towards “safer” ministry areas, leaders and ministers of influence should focus on being intentional about sponsoring gifted women who hold great potential. Alexander said influential leaders must be willing to take a risk, since doing this would be going against the status quo (pp. 410-411). Alexander pointed out that if influential leaders do not give these gifted women a chance then “younger women will have no models of how they can fulfill their own calling”, and the lack of women in ministry will only continue to exist (p. 411). However, having women in pastoral leadership positions is not the complete solution. Those in any kind of ministry must strive to make sure that certain things are present so that both men and women can thrive. Spencer (1985) noted that mutual respect, the building up of each other, the cultivation of true community, focusing on fixing our own issues, giving others the benefit of the doubt, rejoicing in one another, and tolerance are important things church leaders must practice in order for there to be strong ministries where males and females can effectively work and do ministry together (pp. 168-171).
            The world needs strong, Godly pastoral leaders. If women were welcomed into pastoral leadership positions, the world may just get the leaders it so desperately needs. Women should be welcomed as pastoral leaders in the church because banning women from certain ministry positions contradicts the idea that men and women are equal, women have many qualities that would be beneficial for church leaders to have, God’s frequent use of women in the Bible shows that a woman in ministry is biblical, and the passages frequently used against the idea of women in ministry are often not properly examined.  Gifted women have been kept from leading in ministry for far too long. It is time for the Church to stop putting up barriers for them and start embracing them for the gifts they add to ministry.


Alexander, K. E. (January 2012). Pentecostal women: Chosen for an exalted destiny. Theology Today, 68(4). DOI: 10.1177/0040573611424932
            The author of the article Dr. Kimberly Alexander is a professor at Regent University School of Divinity and former president for the Society of Pentecostal Studies. The publication this article was in, Theology Today, is an academic journal which is put forth by Sage Publications for the Princeton Theological Seminary. I used this source to illustrate how men and women are treated differently in ministry, and how leaders can better support women in ministry.
Allchin, A. M., & Taylor, J. V. (1992). A fearful symmetry?: The complementarity of men and women in ministry. London: SPCK.
Anderson, M. (2014, August 1). Why I Am A Feminist. Retrieved from
Belleville, L. L. (2000). Women leaders and the church: Three crucial questions. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House.
Bilezikian, G. G. (1989). Beyond sex roles: What the Bible says about a woman's place in church and family. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House.
Browne, K. (2002). Biology at work: Rethinking sexual equality. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press.
            Kingsley Browne is a law professor at Wayne State University who is also the author of a couple books. Biology at Work, his first publication was published by Rutgers University Press. I used this source to affirm my previous findings on the different traits of men and women.
Carroll, E. (1975). Women and ministry. Theological Studies36(4).
            Dr. Elizabeth Carroll has done lots of research, has many publications, was a president of the Pittsburgh Sisters of Mercy and of the Leadership Conference of Women Religious, and was president of Carlow College. Her article “Women and Ministry” was published in the academic journal Theological Studies by Sage Publications. I used this source to show how Jesus involved women in his ministry and how women responded to him.
Evans, M. J. (1983). Woman in the Bible. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press.
Hamman, J. J. (2010). Resistance to women in ministry and the psychodynamics of sadness. Pastoral Psychology, 59(6). DOI:
            Dr. Jaco Hamman studied both theology and psychology in college, is a professor at Vanderbilt Divinity School, has experience in ministry and psychology, and has many published works. This particular work is in the well-known academic journal Pastoral Psychology. I used this source to find out how women pursuing ministry are treated by one who interacts with them everyday.
Husbands, M., & Larsen, T. (2007). Women, ministry and the Gospel: Exploring new paradigms. Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Academic.
            This source was edited by Mark Husbands and Timothy Larsen. Husbands is the associate professor of theology at Hope College and Larsen is a professor of Christian Thought at Wheaton College. This book was published by IVP Academic. I used this source to learn about the gifting of men and women.
Keener, C.S. Was Paul for or against women in ministry? Enrichment Journal. Retrieved from
Maxwell, L. E., & Dearing, R. C. (1987). Women in ministry. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.
McKnight, S. (2011). “Junia is not alone.” Englewood, Colorado: Patheos Press.
Payne, P.B. (Winter 2015).  The Bible teaches the equal standing of man and woman. Priscilla Papers, Volume 29, Number 1. Retrieved from
Saucy, R. L. & Tenelshof, J. K. (2001). Women and men in ministry: a complementary perspective. Chicago, Illinois, Moody Press.
            Robert L. Saucy is a professor at Talbot Theological Seminary, was the president of the Evangelical Theological Society, and is an author. Judith K. Tenelshof is a professor at Talbot School of Theology, has started and led counseling centers in churches and schools, is the founder and vice president of Hilltop Renewal Center for Christian Leaders, and is an author. Their book was published by Moody Bible Institute’s Moody Press. I used this source to find out more arguments complementarians make.
Spencer, A. B. (1985). Beyond the curse: women called to ministry. Nashville: T. Nelson.
Walker, D.H. (2011). Women in ministry: the logical core of the debate (Doctoral dissertation)Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
            Dr. Douglas Walker wrote this dissertation to obtain his PhD in philosophy. It was published by Trinity International University. I used this source to determine the different viewpoints on women in ministry and also find out what verses egalitarians hold to be most valuable to their argument.
Wirthwein, L., Becker, C. V., Loehr, E., & Rost, D. H. (2011). Overexcitabilities in gifted and non-gifted adults: Does sex matter? High Ability Studies22(2). doi:10.1080/13598139.2011.622944
Witherington, B. (1984). Women in the ministry of Jesus: A study of Jesus' attitudes to women and their roles as reflected in his earthly life. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press.

            Dr. Ben Witherington III is a New Testament scholar, professor at Asbury Theological Seminary, and pastor in the United Methodist Church. This book he wrote was published by Cambridge University Press. I used this source to find out how Jesus treated women, specifically how he taught them.